Bipolar Disorder, also known as manic depression, is characterized by intense, persistent mood swings between the poles of depression and mania. These moods are greatly intensified or clearly different from the youngster's usual personality and are far out of proportion to events in the environment in intensity and/or duration. The youngster experiences the typical signs of depression – helplessness, hopelessness, and worthlessness – and the signs of mania – grandiosity and exuberance. The disorder may be genetic and caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Medication is successful in moderating the symptoms.